In 1967, 63 participants in the United Nations ratified an outer space treaty. This agreement reaffirmed all previous guidelines for international space conduct. The treaty came into force in October. Between 1959 and 1962, Western powers made a series of proposals to ban the use of outer space for military purposes.
His successive plans for general and complete disarmament included provisions to prohibit the orbit and deployment in outer space of weapons of mass destruction. Addressing the General Assembly on September 22, 1960, President Eisenhower proposed that the principles of the Antarctic Treaty apply to outer space and celestial bodies. Convinced that a treaty on the principles that should govern the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, will promote the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,. Upon receiving such information, the Secretary-General of the United Nations must be willing to disseminate it immediately and effectively.
First of all, it contains a commitment not to place in orbit around the Earth, install on the Moon or any other celestial body, or any other station in outer space, nuclear or any other weapon of mass destruction. Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or promotes the launch of an object into outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and each State Party from whose territory or installation an object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to another State Party to the Treaty or to its natural or legal persons by that object or its component parts on Earth, airspace or outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. Previous treaties, such as the 1968 Rescue Agreement on the Recovery of Astronauts and the 1979 Moon Agreement, are based on agreements made in the Outer Space Treaty. Recalling resolution 1962 (XVIII), entitled “Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space”, which was unanimously adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 1963,.
Outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, through use or occupation, or by any other means. The 1963 Limited Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty banned all tests or detonations of nuclear weapons under water, in the atmosphere or in outer space. On the contrary, scientists didn't know if there was extraterrestrial life on the Moon or elsewhere, and they didn't want to risk space agencies bringing back a deadly space microbe that had never been seen before. OST was at the center of a “network” of interstate treaties and strategic negotiations on power to achieve the best available conditions for global nuclear weapons security.
The States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any object carrying nuclear weapons or any other type of weapons of mass destruction, to install such weapons in celestial bodies, or to park such weapons in outer space in any other way. Recalling resolution 1884 (XVIII), which calls on States to refrain from placing in orbit around the Earth any object carrying nuclear weapons or any other type of weapons of mass destruction or from installing such weapons in celestial bodies, which was adopted unanimously by the General Assembly of the United Nations on October 17, 1963,. The United States proposed another treaty in 1965 and 1966, which eventually became the Outer Space Treaty. The provisions of this Treaty shall apply to the activities of States Parties to the Treaty in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, regardless of whether such activities are carried out by a single State Party to the Treaty or jointly with other States, including cases in which they are carried out within the framework of international intergovernmental organizations.
In 1958 and 1959, two international committees, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), were established to promote international cooperation in scientific research and promote the use of outer space for peaceful purposes. For example, during discussions on the Antarctic Treaty, many countries wanted to claim part of the continent as their own based on which citizens first discovered a particular area, but there were many overlays of land claimed by multiple nations. . .